• Course Description:  The focus of the grade-eight science standards is on providing students with the hands-on experiences that give them the active engagement and the concrete examples they require in order to understand basic science concepts. The development of eighth graders’ science skills culminates with their designing an entire controlled scientific investigation, constructing explanations and drawing conclusions from data, and generating questions for further study.  Specifically, students explore the life, earth, and physical sciences within the framework of the following topics: “Earth’s Biological History” (Earth’s biological diversity over time); “Earth’s Structure and Processes” (materials and processes that alter the structure of Earth); “Astronomy: Earth and Space Systems” (characteristics, structure, and motions of celestial bodies in the universe); “Forces and Motion” (effects of forces on the motion of an object); and “Waves” (properties and behaviors of waves).